General Survey Of Ayrshire and Strathclyde

Original pagination [pp] from W.J. Watson, History of the Celtic Placenames of Scotland, 1926 
(reprinted 1993 by BIRLINN, Edinburgh, ISBN 1 874744 06 8).

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AYRSHIRE, formed part of the territory of the Damnonians; later it appears to have become a separate province. Coel, the ancestor of its line of rulers, flourished, if we may judge by the Welsh genealogies, about A.D. 400; his seat was most probably in the central division of the county, called after him Kyle (Cul, 1153, Reg. Glasg.), Cil, 1164, ib., in Irish Cuil). ‘There is a tradition,’ says the Old Statistical Account ‘though it is believed very ill-founded, that Coylton derives its name from a king called Coilus, who was killed in battle in the neighbourhood, and buried at the church of Coylton.’ (1) The southern division, Carrick, is Karric, 1153 (Reg. Glasg.), from Welsh carreg, a rock, borrowed into G. as carraig; it appears to have been connected more or less closely with Galloway. Cunningham, the northern division, is Cunegan, 1153 (Reg. Glasg.), Cuninham, 1180, ib., later Conynham, Conyham, Conynghame, Cunyngham; the origin is doubtful, but the expression in Taliesin ‘Coel ae kanawon’ means ‘Coel and his whelps,’ not ‘Kyle and Cunningham.’ (2)

The Irish records yield very little as to Ayrshire, and there is no reference that can be called ancient. The town of Ayr is Inber-air in 1490 (AU), which agrees with the modern Gaelic Inbhir-àir. A chief of the Macleans married Rioghnach, daughter of Gamel, lord of Carrick about 1300. (3) The lady’s name is Gaelic, though her father’s name is English.


It is of interest to know that one of the thirteen wonders of Britain was a quern which ground constantly, except on Sundays, near Mauchline in Kyle. (4) It was heard working under ground. To witness the tradition there is Auchenbrain, c. 1200 (Lib. MeIr.) Acchenebron for Achadh na brón ‘field of the quern,’ about three miles from Mauchline.

Of the saints commemorated in Ayrshire, Brigid of Kilbride, Donnan of Chapel Donnan, and Findbarr of Kilwinning, have been mentioned in connection with Galloway.

The saint of Colmonell is Colman Elo, abbot of Lann Elo, now Lann Eala, in King’s County, who died in 611. There is also Kilcolmanell, Cill Cholman Eala, in Kintyre.

Kilkerran is for Cill Chiaráin, Ciarán’s Church. It is in the parish of Dailly, which appears as Dalmulkerane, 1404 (Chart. of Crosraguel), ‘St. Ciarán’s servant’s dale’; near New Dailly is Dalquharran, but whether the second part here is for Ciarán is doubtful. Of the twenty-two saints called Ciarán the most famous are Ciarán mac an t-Saeir, ‘son of the carpenter,’ abbot of Cluain mac Nois, who died in 549, and Ciarán of Saigir, bishop and confessor, ‘the senior of the saints of Ireland,’ who is said to have been before Patrick. The Life of the former states that Colum Cille took earth from his grave when he was setting out for Iona, and in passing through the gulf of Coire Bhreacáin cast some of it into the sea when his ship was in danger. There is another Cill Chiaráin, Kilkerran in Kintyre, and probably both are dedicated to Ciarán of Cluain mac Nois.

Kilmarnock, still known in Arran Gaelic as Cill Mhearnáig, commemorates Mo-Ernóc, contracted into M’Ernóc. Ernóc is a diminutive of Ernéne, itself a diminutive form, translated by Adamnan Ferreolus, ‘little iron man.’ Ernóc might equally well be from rnán, Ernín, Erníne, all names of saints. Twenty-two saints were called Mo-Ernóc, (Rawl. B 502, 93 h 1), and Reeves held that Mernoc of the two Kilmarnocks (Ayr and Cowal) is the saint whom Adamnan [188] mentions as ‘Craseni,’ who died in 635 (AU), and whose day is Aug. 18. (5) The Aberdeen Martyrology, as Reeves mentions, gives Mernoc of Kilmernoch at Oct. 25, which suggests that the saint commemorated is Ernáinof Midluachair, whose day in Gorman is Oct. 26.

Kilkenzie, for Cill Chainnigh, in Carrick, 1506 (RMS), is a dedication to Cainnech. It is Kilmechannache, ‘my Cainnech’s church ‘ in a charter of Robert i. (RMS). There were four saints of that name, but this is probably the great Cainnech of Achadh Bó, in Queen’s County, who died in 599 or 600. He is said to have accompanied Columba on his visit to the court of Brude, king of the Picts, and Adamnan mentions him as an honoured guest of Columba in Iona. His name is preserved in Kilchennich in Tiree, and he had a reclés or chapel in St. Andrews.

Killochan, on Girvan Water in Carrick, appears to be Killunquhane, 1505 (RMS), and if the old spelling is correct, the dedication is to Onchú, gen. Onchon, styled by Oengus ‘splendid descendant of the sage’ (Feb. 8) ; he belonged to Connacht, and was specially noted for collecting relics of saints. Hence comes the old surname McClonnachan or McClannochane, for Mac Gille Onchon.

Kirkoswald commemorates king Oswald, who was slain in 641 in battle with the pagan Penda. In 1180 and again in 1185 (RMS), a charter by the Earl of Carrick was witnessed by Gilleasald McGilleandrys, ‘servant of Oswald, son of the servant of Andrew.’ The Welsh form, Coso(s)uold, appears as the name of a man near Peebles about 1200 (Reg. Glasg.).

The Charters of Holyrood record a donation made by Uchtred, (6) son of Fergus (of Galloway) of the church of St. Constantin of Colmonell (Colmanele) ‘which is now called Kirkcostintyn,’ with the chapel of St. Constantin. This is probably the Constantin whose conversion is recorded in 588 (AU), styled by Oengus ‘rí Rathin,’ ‘king of Rathin,’ and by Gorman ‘Constantin Britt buanraith,’ ‘Constantin the Briton of lasting grace.’ He is said to have been a [189] king of Cornwall who left his kingdom to become a monk under Mochutu of Rathin, where he succeeded Mochutu as abbot. He is also said to have passed over to Scotland, and to have suffered martyrdom in Kintyre, where he is commemorated in Kilchousland. The church of Govan is dedicated to him. In the notes to the Félire of Oengus he is called Constantin son of Fergus, king of Alba, but this Fergus died in 820. Another Constantin, son of Aed, was king of Alba from 900 to 942, when he became a cleric (baculum cepit), resigning the kingdom to his son Maol Coluim; he died in 952, and he is probably the Constantin whom the annotator of the Félire has confused with Constantin of Rathin.

Kilbirnie is supposed to be ‘Brendan’s Church,’ and this is supported by St. Brennan’s Fair which used to be held there on 28th May. The festival of Brénainn, son of Findlug, famous for his seven years’ voyage, was on May 16 (old style). For the formation compare Kilbranne1494 (RMS), now Kilbrannan in Islay. Culbirnie or Kilbirnie, near Beauly, is in Gaelic Cuùil-bhraonaigh, ‘(at) oozy nook,’ from braon, a drizzle, ooze; Birnie in Morayshire is ‘Brennach’ before 1200, which is simply G. braonach, a moist place; the dative-locative is braonaigh, which becomes Birnie in Scots by the usual metathesis.

Balmokessaik, ‘my-Kessog’s stead,’ 1541 (RMS), in Carrick, appears to commemorate St. Kessog (Cessoc) of Luss.

Kilphin in Ballantrae parish may be the same as Cill Fhinn; the name ‘Gillebert mac Gillefin’ c. 1166 (Bain’s Cal.) suggests a saint named Finn, shortened from Finnén.

Kilwhannel in Ballantrae parish is to be compared with Craigmawhannal near Loch Macaterick, and may commemorate St. Connel.

St. Quivox is ‘parochia S. Kevoce’ 1547, ‘Sanct Kevokis’ 1591 (RMS). The Aberdeen Breviary gives at Mar. 13 a life of a fictitious female saint Kevoca. As that is the day of Mo Chóemóc (later Mo Chaomhóg) of Liath Mór or Liath Mo Chóemóc in Tipperary, it is clear that he is the saint com- [190] memorated, and that the compilers of the Breviary were misled by the ending –óc, which they took to be feminine as in modem Gaelic. Mo Chóemóc died in 656 (AU). He was a Connacht man, but spent most of his life in Munster. He appears to have attained a great age: his Life brings him into relations with Cainnech of Achadh Bó,who died about 600. (7)

Kilcais is placed by Blaeu north of Ayr and near West Sancher (Sanquhar) ; it appears often on record and was apparently not far from Prestwick. This may be the church called ‘Chilnecase in Galweia’ said to have been founded by Monenna. (8)

The old term Annat occurs in Pinhannet, Peighinn na h-Annaide ‘pennyland of the Annat,’ in Barr, and in Annet at Skelmorlie.

Crossraguel (also in Glassford, Lanark) is probably Riagal’s Cross.

The connection between the saints commemorated in a district and the old personal names of the district is so interesting that I may mention some additional instances. Gillemernoch, ‘McErnoc’s servant,’ brother of Gilleasald, ‘Oswald’s servant,’ witnessed a deed by the Earl of Carrick about 1185. (9) Malcolm Gilmornaike or Gilmernaykie appears in the reign of Robert i.; he belonged either to Ayrshire or to Wigtownshire. (10) Gillecrist mac Gillewinnin witnessed a charter ‘de Colmanele’ about 1166 (11) in the same document the preceding witness is MacGillegunnin. Bran, son of Macgillegunnin, witnessed a charter by Christian, bishop of Whithorn (Chart. Hol.). Here –winnin and –gunnin both represent the Welsh form of Finnén of Kilwinning and Kirkgunzeon, and the mixture of Gaelic and Welsh goes to show that Welsh had not yet been quite displaced by Gaelic, or at any rate that Welsh had been [191] spoken recently. Another witness about 1180 was Gillecrist. Bretnach, ‘Gillechrist (servant of Christ) the Briton,’ of Kyle or Carrick. (12)

In 750 Edbert of Northumbria added the plain of Kyle to his kingdom; Carrick had doubtless formed part of it before that date – it would have gone with Galloway. Thus in the latter part of the eighth century the political situation in Ayrshire was similar to that in Galloway. Everything goes to show that the introduction of Gaelic and the decline of British followed much the same course in both districts. The dedications are of the same type; the system of land measures is the same – Pin- and Pen-, for peighinn, a pennyland, are specially common; the Gaelic names are of the same class, with the same Scottish flavour. Gaelic names are fewer in Cunningham; in Carrick and Kyle they are as plentiful as in Galloway. The British names are few in comparison. The more important streams have retained the old names. Carrick and Kyle are British. Troon is W. trwyn, nose, cape; it occurs six times at least in names of capes in the Lleyn peninsula, Carnarvon, e.g. Trwyn y Gwyddel, ‘the Gael’s Cape.’ Pant, in Stair parish, is Welsh for ‘hollow, valley’; Guelt, in Cumnock, is W. gwellt, O.W. guelt, grass, pasture. A number of names begin with Tra-, Tro-, for W. tref, a homestead, vill, and they tend to go in clusters, e.g. close to Barbrethan, ‘the Briton’s height,’ in Kirkmichael parish, are Threave (i.e. tref) and Tranew, while in the neighbourhood are Troquhain and Tradunnock.

We come now to Strath Clyde. References to the Britons of Alba are fairly common in Irish literature, but it is not always possible to be certain which branch is meant. Among these are the tales about Béinne Britt, ‘Béinne the Briton,’ who is said to have led a host of British at the battle of Mucramha, when Art, son of Conn, was slain in the middle of the third century. He and his son Artúr are often mentioned in connection with Fionn and the Fiana, and he is of some interest to us because the old [192] sennachies and bards claim him as an ancestor of MacCailín, the Gaelic style of the Duke of Argyll.

We are on firmer ground when we come to the battle of Strathclyde (cath Sratha Cluatha), recorded among the battles fought by Dathí or Nathí , the last pagan king of Ireland. (13) This was doubtless the expedition which formed the subject of the lost ‘chief tale’ (primscél) entitled ‘The Harrying of Strath Clyde (argain Sratha Cluada). (14) Dathí’s reign began in A.D. 405, and the expedition may well have been undertaken to signalize his accession. Patrick was born, according to Professor Bury’s reckoning, in 389, and he himself tells that he was taken captive to Ireland at the age of sixteen. If, therefore, he was born at or near Dumbarton, as Irish tradition states, there is good ground for believing that he was taken captive on the occasion of this same expedition of Dathí. What was implied by such a foray is illustrated by Patrick’s words, ‘I went into captivity to Ireland with many thousands of persons, according to our deserts, because we departed away from God, and kept not his commandments, and were not obedient to our priests, who used to admonish us for our salvation.’

Some time after Patrick had returned to Ireland as a missionary in 432, the soldiers of Coroticus, the British king of Strathclyde, (15) made an expedition to Ireland, in course of which they slew or captured a number of Patrick’s newly baptized converts. When Patrick sent a letter requesting the return of the baptized captives and of some of the booty, his messengers were jeered at, and the captives were shared with Coroticus’ allies, ‘the Scots and the apostate Picts.’


In the latter part of the next century Rhiderch Hael or Hen (‘the liberal,’ or ‘the old’), king of Strathclyde, was among those who helped Urien of Rheged against the Angles, and it is likely that Aedán mac Gabráin had the support of the Strathclyde Britons at Degsastan. Between 682 and 703 the Britons were active in the north of Ireland. In 682 they fought the battle of Ráth Mór Maighe Line (Moylinney) in Antrim. In 697 they joined the men of Ulster in ravaging the plain of Murthemne in Louth. In 702 they slew Irgalach, son or grandson of Conang, king of Bregia, in the isle off Howth which is now called Ireland’s Eye. (16) In 703 the Britons were defeated in the battle of Magh Culinn, in Co. Down, when the son of Radhgann, ‘the enemy of God’s churches,’ was killed. (17) This is the last instance on record of a British expedition to Ireland. In 756 Edbert of Northumbria and Angus, king of the Picts, made terms with the Britons at Dumbarton. (18) The rest of their history is given by Skene so far as it is on record, but we may note a Welsh statement relating to the year 890 that ‘the men of Strathclyde, those that refused to unite with the English, had to depart from their country, and to go to Gwynedd (North Wales).’ There they were given permission to settle in certain parts that had been taken by the English, whom they ultimately drove out. (19)

The traces of the Church in Renfrewshire are similar to those in the south-west generally. Kilmalcolm, Kilmacolme 1539 (RMS), may commemorate Colum Cille or some other Colum; St. Bride’s chapel is in Kilbarchan, St. Oswald in Cathcart. Polloc was dedicated to St. Convallus, who is said by Fordun to be buried in Inchinnan. Inchinnan may contain the name of Finnén, i.e. Findbarr of Maghbhile. Kilallan is ‘church of Fáelán’ or Fillan, whose chair and well are there. The fact that his fair was held in January goes to identify him with Fáelán of Cluain Moescnain Meath, who is commemorated on Jan. 9, but of whom nothing authentic seems to be known.


‘Kilmaloog under the barony of Renfrew,’ 1377 (Reg. Glasg.) commemorates Moluag, probably of Lismore.

The saint of Kilbarchan is Berchán, whose fair was held on the first Tuesday of December, and this identifies him with Berchán of Cluain Sosta, whose day was Dec. 4. In the Félire of Oengus he is referred to as ‘Fer lethe,’ ‘the man of two sides,’ because, as explained in the Martyrology of Donegal, he spent half his life in Alba and the other half in Éire. Gorman and the Martyrology of Tamlacht have a Berchán at Aug. 4, and the latter states that he was of Cluain Sasta, perhaps in error. The Lammas fair at Tain was called Féill Bearcháin,’Sancti Barquhani,’ 1612 (RMS), and the autumn market at Aberfoyle bore the same name. Berchán of Eigg is commemorated on April 10.

Paisley is Paislig in Gaelic at the present day, and on title-pages of Gaelic books: ‘an Baile Phaislig,’ 1848; Paislic, 1800; Paislig, 1908. (20) The Abbot of Passelek’ appears on record in 1296.(21) From this it is clear that the latinized form Pasletum has arisen from a misreading of c as t : the two letters are practically indistinguishable from each other in the early records. Paislig is from Lat. basilica, a church; baslec , a church; a churchyard, cemetery; dat. baslic; in Ireland there are Baslick in Roscommon and Baslickane in Kerry. The O. Welsh is bassalec, whence ‘ecclesia de Basselek’ in the Deanery of Newport. The change of initial b to p is rare in Old Gaelic, but compare Lat. bestia, Ir. peist, a monster; Lat. brassica, cabbage, Ir. praiseach, pottage(22) ; also Mid. Eng. bras, Sc.G. prais, brass. Paisley may be of British origin. (23)

Lanarkshire shows comparatively few old dedications. St. Bride is commemorated in Kilbride, and in St. Bride’s chapel on Kype in Avendale ; her well is in Dunsyre. She was the patron saint of Douglas and of the House of Douglas. The churches of Govan and of Crawfordjohn [195] were dedicated to Constantin. Kentigern is mentioned as the saint of Lanark in 1147-1164 (Chart. Dryburgh).

Cambuslang is dedicated to Cadoc of Llancarvan, a grandson, according to his Life and the Welsh genealogies, of Brachan of Brecheniauc, now Brecknock. The Life of St. Cadoc (24) states that he crossed over to Ireland and stayed there three years. He visited ‘Lismor Muchutu,’ where he came to be called Muchutu, after the founder, on account of his holiness and humility. As Mochutu of Rathin and Lismore died in 637, he was later than Cadoc, but the remark as to the name by which Cadoc was known in Irish is of interest. Cadoc also visited St. Andrews in Albania ‘which is commonly called Scotia’ – the name ‘St. Andrews’ is, of course, long subsequent to St. Cadoc. On the way back he came to a certain town ‘citra montem Bannauc,’ i.e. to the south of the hill Bannauc, which is said to be in the centre of Albania, and here he was instructed in a vision to remain in this country for seven years. In course of digging the foundations for his monastery he found a collar bone of some hero of old, so huge that a warrior on horseback could ride through it. Cadoc will not eat or drink till he finds from God who this was. That same night he is told in a vision that the ancient giant (veteranus gigas) will rise at the first hour of the day. He does rise, a giant huge and terrific, and explains that he is Cau, styled Pritdin, (25) the Cruthen or Briton, otherwise Caur, ‘giant,’ who had been king of a district in the north, and had come to this place to plunder and to ravage, where he had been killed. He is now in Hell, in evil case. Cadoc reassures him, promising him another chance in this world to atone for his sins by good works, and at once sets him to work as a digger (fossor). Cadoc’s monastery appears to have been in a province called in the Life ‘Lintheamine.’ His churches north of Forth are Kilmadoc and St. Madoes. O. Welsh bannauc, Welsh bannog, from banna, horn, peak, means ‘peaked,’ ‘mons Bannauc’ is ‘the peaked hill, or range of hills ‘; [196] compare Banau Brycheiniog, ‘the Brecknock Beacons,’ literally ‘the Brecknock Peaks or Horns.’ Skene identified ‘mons Bannauc’ with the Cathkin Hills in the parish of Carmunnock, of old Cormannoc which would mean on this hypothesis ‘peaked circle,’ ‘peaked close.’ Apart from the somewhat unsatisfactory meaning of this it is unlikely that the reference is to a range so insignificant as the Cathkin Hills ; the implication of the passage is rather that a well-marked dividing range is meant. ‘Mons Bannauc’ represents Minid Bannauc, and this most probably denoted the hilly region, abounding in peaks, which forms the basin of the river Carron in Stirlingshire, from the northern side of which flows the Bannock Burn.

Corsbasket, 1426 (RMS), now Basket, Blantyre, may be for cros Pascaid, the form which would result in Gaelic from O.Welsh Pascent, ‘Pascent’s cross.’ A saint of this name is given as a son or grandson of Brychan.

The old name of the church of Carluke was Eglismalescok, 1147 (Lib. Calch.), Eglismaleshoghe, 1319 (Bain’s Cal.), Eglismalesoch, 1321 (Reg. Glas.), -malesoke (RMS, i., App. 2.). We may perhaps compare St. Loesuc of Brittany. (26) There is an old site in North Knapdale called Kilmalisaig.

Lesmahagow is Lesmahagu thrice in King David’s charter of 1144, and in the charter of the same year by the bishop of Glasgow confirming the grant to Kelso; in 1158 (Lib. Calch.) it is Lesmagu. The personal name Gille Mohagu appears several times in early charters of this district: Gilmalagon mac Kelli (in error for Gilmahagou), 1147/60, ib.; Gilmagu mac Aldic, 1180/1203, ib.; Gilmehaguistoun in Fincurroks, i.e. near Corehouse in Lesmahagow parish, 1208/18. These forms establish the vernacular of the twelfth century, when Gaelic was doubtless spoken in the parish. On the other hand King David’s charter of 1144 gives the saint’s name in Latin as Sanctus Machutus, (27) and this is the regular form afterwards. King [197] Robert the Bruce, in 1315, made certain grants ‘to God and to the Blessed Virgin Mary and to St. Machutus and to the monks of Lesmachu’ for the purpose of providing eight waxen candles, each of one pound of wax, around the tomb of St. Machutus (RMS).

It is clear that Mahagu and Machutus are independent and different names. Machutus was apparently a British saint. There is or was a church of Machutus in the Deanery of Abergavenny in Monmouthshire, called in Welsh, Lann Mocha, (28) with which may be compared Lesmachu in the charter referred to. In Brittany he is St. Malo, called in the common speech of the district St. Mahou, and latinized as Maclovius. (29)

In ‘Ma-hagow’ as now pronounced the a of hagow is long and sounded like ai in English ‘maiden’ ; gow is sounded go. The name can hardly be other than Mo-Fhécu, later Mo-Fhégu, the reduced affectionate form of the name of Féchín of Fobhar or Fore. With o elided, Mo-Fhécu became M’Écu, later M’Égu, which is seen in the short forms Les-maguGil-magu. Lesmahagow is for Lios Mo-Fhégu, ‘my Féchín’s enclosure.’ St. Féchín’s day was Jan. 20 ; in Oengus’ Félire he is Mo-Écu (three syllables). He died in 665 or 668 (AU).

Annathill, near Mollinburn, in Newmonkland parish, is the only instance of Annat which I have noted in Lanarkshire.

The British element that remains in the names of Strathclyde is not very large, but it includes a number of the important names, such as Renfrew, Lanark, Glasgow, Partick, Drumpellier. Stream names are largely British, as Clyde, Daer, Nethan, Medwin, Calder, Cander, Elvan. On the 1-inch Ordnance Survey Map about fifty names in Lanarkshire and about twenty in Renfrewshire might be claimed as British. Of Gaelic names, if we take the same basis, there are about one hundred and fifty respectively. Names beginning with achadh, a field, are common – [198] there are over twenty in Lanarkshire – but baile is rare. There are few traces of the system of pennylands, merklands, etc., which is so evident in Galloway and Ayrshire: Glespin, in Crawfordjohn, probably stands for glas p(h)eighinn, ‘green pennyland.’ The number of names in the Glasgow district which begin with Gart is notable, and may be due to British influence, though of course gortgart of Gaelic and garth of Welsh both mean ‘ field, enclosure.’ A curious name in Carnwath is Gowmacmorran; it can hardly be other than the Scots form of Goll mac Morna, (30) the famous Fian leader and rival of Fionn, with some term before it which has dropped. This is the only reference to the Fenian tales which I have noted in the south.

The charter of William i. granted about 1205 to the burgh of Ayr, and confirmed by Alexander ii. and David ii. (1367, RMS), prescribes that ‘toll and customs due to the burgh shall be given and received at Mache and Karnebuth (Karnebothe, 1367) and Loudun and Krosnecone (Krosnekone, 1367) and Lachtalpen.’ This last point is described elsewhere as in Wigtownshire, adjacent to the lands of Carrick (1319, RMS), and is now represented by the name Laight, on the east side of Loch Ryan, close to the Carrick border; the exact spot is marked by the stone styled on the Ordnance Survey Map ‘Taxing Stone’ on the county march. The name is for leacht Alpín, ‘Alpin’s grave,’ and may well commemorate the burial-place of Alpin, the father of King Kenneth, who is said to have been killed in Galloway about 841. (31)

Krosnecone is now Corsancone on the Nith, in New Cumnock, close to the Lanark march. In the poem ‘Does haughty Gaul invasion threat,’ Robert Burns has:

‘The Nith shall run to Corsincon,
And Criffel sink in Solway, 
Ere we permit a foreign foe 
On British ground to rally!’

1. Vol.i. p. 101, also p. 96; xix. p. 457.

2. Sir E. Anwyl, Celt.Rev., iv. p. 266.

3. Rioghnach inghean Gamhail mormair Cairrige ; Skene, Celtic Scotland iii. p. 481.

4. ‘In treas ingnad deag, bro for bleith do greas im Machlind i Cuil, acht dia domnaig ; fo talmain imorro do cluintear’; Irish Nennius, p. 119.

5. Reeves, Life of Columba, p. 26.

6. Uchtred fl. 1166 (Bain’s Cal, i. p. 14).

7. His genealogy is given in Rawl. B 502, 91 f ; Oengus Fel., p. 96. A verse in LL 353 (foot) and 357 (left margin) credits him with having lived 414 years. His Life in Latin is given in Plummer’s Vitae SS. Hiberniae, vol. ii. His name is an affectionate form of Cóemgen, and is latinised Pulcherius.

8. Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii. p. 35.

9. RMS ii.

10. RMS i.

11. Chart. of Holywood.

12. RMS ii.

13. YBL 192 b 25. The prose tract entitled Baile an Scáil ascribes this battle to Dathí’s son, Ailill Molt, but as this tract Dathí altogether from the list of kings there must be an error at this point. (Celt. Zeit. iii. p. 463.)

14. In 871 the Norsemen of Dublin harried Strathclyde after they had taken Dumbarton, but this is not likely to have formed the subject of an Irish ‘chief tale.’

15. Styled in the Book of Armagh ‘Coirthech rex Aloo’; in O. Welsh ‘Ceretic Guletic.’

16. A.U.

17. A.U.

18. Symeon of Durham.

19. A. O. Anderson, Early Sources,i. p. 368.

20. Typographia Scoto-Gadelica, pp. 19, 80, 183.

21. Calendar of Close Rolls.

22. Pedersen, Vergl. Grammatik, i. p. 235.

23. In modem Gaelic initial b is sometimes p in dialect, e.g. in bìoball, bible ; boilcein, a round, thick-set person.

24. Rees, Cambro-British Saints.

25. Kaw o Brydein, ‘Kaw from Pictland,’ is prominent in the Welsh tale of ‘the Hunting of Twrch Trwyth’ in the Mabinogion.

26. Rev. Celt., xxx. p. 134.

27. The king grants his firm peace to such as, on account of peril to life or limb, flee for refuge to the cell or reach within the four crosses surrounding it, ‘ob reverentiam Dei et Sancti Machuti,’ Lib. Calch.

28. Book of Llandaf.

29. Professor Loth deals with Maclovius in Rev. Celt., xxx. p. 141; he considers Machutus to be a derivative from the first part of the compound Macc-lovo-.

30. In Barbour’s Bruce ‘Colmakmorn ‘; in Sir David Lindsay ‘Gowmakmorne.’

31. A. O. Anderson, Early Sources, i. p. 270; Skene, P.S., pp. 149,172, 288; Celtic Scotland, i. p. 292.

32. Charters of the Royal Burgh of Ayr, p. xxv.

33. Skene, P.S., p. 155. The ‘mering’ part may be an attempt to explain the name Mearns in Renfrewshire.

34. The first Bannatyne near Lanark who appears on record is Nicholas de Banaghtyn, who flourished in 1300 (Bain’s Cal.).

35. A boat of ten tons can come up to Carnas Luinge at very high tides. My information as to Cambuslang was got by a friend from Mr. Geddes of the Humane Society, who had himself gone from Glasgow Green to Cambuslang and back by rowing boat, watching the tide both ways.

36. There are two cairns (Ord. Gaz.).

37. New Stat. Acc.

38. The bounds in the early charter are: ‘ de Neithan usque Polmacde et de Garin usque Kelvin et de Loudun usque Prenteineth et de Karnebuth ad Karun.’ In 1617 they are : ‘a Nethan ad Polmadie et a Garin ad Kelvin et a Lowdoun ad Preinteinethe et a lie Carneburgh ad Carroun.’ ‘Lie Carneburgh’ may be Carnbroe in Old Monkland, Carnbrw, 1489, Carnebrow, 1634 (RMS), with ‘the Cairnhill’ adjacent; it is for carn brogha, ‘cairn of the brugh,’ or ‘mansion,’ perhaps a fairy dwelling; compare Cairnborrow in Aberdeenshire, Carnbrowyis, 1400 (RMS).

39. In 1479 King James iii.,confirming a charter of Robert ii.,appointed the Earl of Argyll his lieutenant and special commissary ‘from Carnedrome to Polgillippe and from Polmalfeith to Loch Long’ (RMS).

40. Woulfe, Irish Names and Surnames, 1923; Expulsion of the Dessi, ed. Kuno Meyer.